17th APO Grantees Forum: Green Productivity, Resource Recovery and Water Management Technologies, 26 Oct 2017, DAP Pasig

The Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP) as the National Productivity Organization (NPO), is organizing the APO Grantees’ Forum on 26 October 2017, from 9:30 am to 4:00 pm, 3F Rizal Hall, DAP Building, San Miguel Avenue, Ortigas Center, Pasig City.

The Forum serves as a platform for sharing, learning and networking among alumni / grantees of Asian Productivity Organization (APO) projects, identifying areas for collaboration with productivity champions and stakeholders which is also in line with creating “multiplier effects” of APO programs.

With the theme “Green Productivity, Resource Recovery and Water Management Technologies”, this activity will share information and updates on GP related activities and initiatives by selected APO member countries, share recent Green Technology trends in the Asian region in the context of evolving international discussions and initiatives for promoting sustainable development, and promote national collaboration among public and private sector groups, APO alumni, and other stakeholders in the area of GP.

OUTLINE OF TOPICS AND OUTLINE OF RESOURCE SPEAKERS

“Training Course on Management Consultancy on GP focusing on SMEs” (Taipei, ROC 2017)
By Bobby Jones V. Domdom, MP, LPT
Consultant
Development Academy of the Philippines

“Training of Trainers and Consultants on Green Productivity” (Taipei, ROC 2017)
By Engr. Richard Andal, SWAPP
Environmental Scientist/Member
Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines (SWAPP)

“Workshop on Innovative Water Resource Management” (Tehran, Iran 2017)
By Engr. Eric A. Raymundo, CEM
Environmental Expert/Board Member
Water and Environment Association of the Philippines (WEAP)

LEARNING INVESTMENT & PAYMENT POLICIES

Php 500.00 per pax paid onsite (official receipt to be provided on the venue);
• Payment inclusive of certificate, lunch/snacks, air-con venue, e-copy of presentation materials,
• Bank deposit payment to Land Bank of the Philippines SA 0671-0105-40
• Limited seats up to 30 pax only, early reservation/registration is encouraged;
• Prepaid participants gets priority seating;

For inquiries please contact tel. nos. 631-2143, 631-0921 local 110 / 107, or e-mail at apolu@dap.edu.ph / apolugrantees@yahoo.com.ph / andayonj@dap.edu.ph Attn: Mr. Michael del Mundo or Ms. Julie Andayon.

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Report: International Forum on Productivity, Sep 12-14, 2017, Malaysia

Attended by 36 representatives from 15 APO member countries

The forum brought together stakeholders with global perspectives to share experiences, address policy challenges to productivity growth, and discuss the implementation of productivity-enhancing policies. Specifically, the forum tried to serve as a platform to address the following objectives:

A. Review the trends in and the future of global sustainable productivity.
B. Analyze sources of productivity growth in a knowledge and technology driven economy.
C. Understand the role of public institutions and policies in enhancing productivity.
D. Discuss best practices and frontier-research findings on productivity.

There were 13 papers presented with different themes but centrally focused on productivity.

OBJECTIVES FOR PARTICIPATION

I applied for qualification to attend the said forum because of the following objectives and expectations:

A. Awareness and understanding of the latest trends on world class sustainable productivity.
B. Additional skills and tools on finding productivity improvement opportunities.
C. Benchmark from other industries on best practices on productivity improvement.
D. Interaction with fellow participants of the same field of interest.

I find the forum relevant to my industry and my work because productivity is a key metric in our operations.

PARTICIPANTS

The activity was massively attended by around 300 productivity practitioners all across Malaysia. Of the 300 participants, 36 are representatives from the 15 APO member countries who joined.

Philippine participants

LILIAN G. BONDOC, PhD
OIC, Policy Coordination and Monitoring Division
DOST – PCAARRD

MARIA CRISELDA R. SY
Executive Director
DOLE – NWPC

BENJAMIN L. ARSUA
Manager, Systems Engineering and Operations Metrics
DEL MONTE PHILIPPINES, INC.

Team PVT (Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand)

SCOPE, CONTENT, METHODOLOGY

The 3-day forum have 2 days spent on presentations of subject experts and culminates on the third day with a workshop with the 36 participants from the 15 APO member countries tackling key insights and action steps moving forward. All presentations of the subject experts culminate with a question and answer portion where participants has the opportunity to clarify thoughts on the subject and or share experience. Aside from the individual presentations, every end of the day, a panel discussion is also facilitated discussing the subjects presented earlier in the day.

During the workshop, I was a member of the PVT (Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand) group and I delivered the report of our group.

The subjects presented by the resources persons are listed below.

1. Sustaining Productivity Growth: The key in meeting global challenges

Speaker:

Mr. Scott Jacobs
Managing Director
Jacobs, Cordova & Associates
USA

Highlight: Key facts and trends in regulatory practices and their implications to productivity including overall quality of regulations. Issues on regulatory institutions and regulatory environment, reforms needed to improve productivity, innovation and diffusion of public policies and services/programs, etc. was stressed to understand the challenges in sustaining productivity growth both from national and global perspectives.

2. Reflection on Taiwan’s Higher Education Policies Towards Productivity Growth

Speaker:

Professor Chuing Prudence Chou
Department of Education
National Chengchi University (NCCU) Taiwan
Republic of China

Highlight: The presentation illustrated how Taiwan’s higher education policies have responded to the forces of globalizaton, the neo-liberal economic ideology, and the worldwide trend towards greater international competition in higher education and in the last two decades and its implication to productivity growth and economic prosperity.

3. Regulatory and competition issues in ASEAN and its implications to Productivity Growth.

Speaker:

Dr. Sufiah Jusoh
Investment Law and Policy Expert
The World Bank

Highlight: The presentation discusses how regulations are made in the ASEAN region and the application of the Good Regulatory Practice (GRP). The discussion focused on the GRP initiative in ASEAN and how it is being implemented in certain member states. The paper looked into the application of the GRP in the formation of investment policies in Myanmar and Laos PDR and their potential impact on the private sector investments.

4. Monitoring Organizational Performance and Its Implications to Sustainable Productivity.

Speaker:

Mr. Mohan Dhamotharan
Consultant
Germany

Highlight: The presentation highlights the importance of organizational performance for strengthening capacities for sustainable productivity. It focused on a holistic perspective on key dimensions of organization performance referring to individual competencies as well as organizational capabilities. Mechanisms and challenges for monitoring organizational performance was also discussed.

5. Radical Approach to Regulatory Reform to Achieve Productivity Growth and Competitiveness: Korean Experience

Speaker:

Professor Jin-Wook Choi
Department of Public Administration
Korea University

Highlight: The presentation introduced the regulatory reform efforts of the Korean government to cope with the slowdown in growth potential. In doing so, the presentation showed the attempts to assess the achievements and remaining challenges of regulatory reform strategies in Korea.

6. Smart Community 2050

Speaker:

Ms. Hazami Habib
Chief Executive Officer
Academy of Science Malaysia

Highlight: It is a presentation of Malaysia’s vision to be among the global elites and the recognition that it is only achievable through its people, the decisions made today and leveraging on Science, Technology and Innovation (STI). Malaysia 2050 comprises of Smart Communities where people live in harmonious, prosperous and sustainable milieu. ASM (Academy of Sciences Malaysia) has started this since 2009 to help Malaysians achieve the vision.

7. Restructuring Existing Workforce Towards Higher Skilled Workers

Speaker:

Mr. Muhamed Ali Hajah Mydin
Chief Executive Officer
Penang Skills Development Centre (PSDC)
Malaysia

Highlight: It introduced the concept of Industry 4.0 and the different fields of expertise that is essential to it. The current fields of electronics, electrical, mechanical engineering, pneumatics and so on will not be enough for employees working in an Industry 4.0 factories. The topic discussed the nine (9) pillars of the Industry 4.0 and what type of skills and methods need to be adopted to have a successful up-skilling and reskilling of employees.

8. Productivity Gains of Industry 4.0 and the Chemical Industry

Speaker:

Mr. Lim Yew Heng
Partner and Managing Director
The Boston Consulting Group (BCG)
Singapore

Highlight: It explains what Industry 4.0 is and why is it changing the manufacturing of chemical industry. It addressed the question on how industry players harness Industry 4.0 to improve productivity. The presentation includes examples of concrete cases and learning lessons for people keen to drive productivity improvement via Industry 4.0.

9. Mind the Gap: How Inter-Industry Linkages Promote Productivity

Speaker:

Dr. Mohd Yusof Saari
Senior Lecturer
Universiti Putra Malaysia

Highlight: Emphasized the interconnected of the different industries in an economy. Growth in one sector also means growth in other sectors involved in the supply chain of that sector. It is important to note of this linkages to be able to pinpoint specifically the needed interventions by sector.

10. Empowering Associations to Support Enterprise-Level Productivity

Speaker:

Mr. Michael Tan
Chief Executive Officer
Singapore Productivity Centre (SPC)
Singapore

Highlight: It stresses the importance of sector productivity and ultimately enterprise level productivity as key drivers of country level productivity growth in these times of increased velocity and complexity. It cites as an example a small nation called Singapore where the need for “all hands on deck” is greater to help enterprises transform to be more lean and competitive. In the enterprise transformation journey, it has identified the role of associations as vital being the receptacle, multiplier and enabler to support enterprise level productivity. Big portion of the presentation was spent on the changing roles of association and how they support enterprises under the key transformation pillars.

11. Future-oriented Competency Development

Speaker:

Mr. Mohan Dhamotharan
Consultant
Germany

Highlight: It stresses the demand for rapid change at all levels of a society given the global challenges, economically and socially. This economic and social conditions we are in we describe as VUCA (volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous) necessitates a future centered competency development of professionals. This requires a multi-dimensional understanding of competency as well as innovative competency development interventions.

12. Big Data: Internet of Things and its Implications to Sustainable Productivity Growth

Speaker:

Professor Dr. Khong Kok Wei
Faculty of Social Sciences, Nottingham
University Business School, Malaysia

Highlight: The presentation presents an overview of big data and the state of data science. It also looked into the state of IOT (Internet of Things) and the sources of data available in this present time. It further delves into the components of a high performance-data-driven digital enterprise as an essential business model to enhancing productivity and growth. It culminates with the discussion on the emergence of machine learning in data analytics and its implications to sustainable productivity and growth.

OUTCOMES AND EVALUATION

The activities were facilitated smoothly by the host organization and host country. Time frame was followed and the objectives of the different sessions I think were met satisfactorily.

Below are my insights coming out of the International Forum on Productivity.

1. The government plays a key role in driving national productivity. Policies that hamper productivity needs to be revisited and changed for the better. Policy makers are drivers of national productivity.

2. Industry 4.0 is the economy of the future. This is where countries will be heading to. While it has the potential to drive productivity significantly, most countries are not ready yet. Good thing though that most has drafted their own road map towards Industry 4.0.
3. One of the biggest gaps towards Industry 4.0 is the competency of the human capital. There is a gap between what the industry needs and what the academe produces. This is a big challenge for the educational sector.

4. Economic growth is interconnected. Growth of one sector means growth also of other sectors that’s included in the supply chain of that sector. It is very important to take a systems view on productivity improvement to identify the small pieces that makes up the entire system so that specific interventions can be made. When you improve one sector, it will drive also other sectors. The linkage is very important.

5. Productivity improvement will not happen solely by people at the top. Government alone cannot make it. Empowering different sectors to improve sectoral productivity to enterprise level will drive total productivity. Talking to people (teams, associations) and working with them on solutions is key.

Awarding of Certificate handed by APO Industry Program Officer Dr. Jose Elvinia

RECOMMENDATIONS AND NEXT STEPS

Given the insights I got from the forum, my recommendations are:

1. APO to come up with a common metric for Industry 4.0. Each member country will do a baseline study relative to the common metric.
2. Member country to draft a road map to Industry 4.0.
3. APO to come up with a system on how to foster commitment from member countries.
4. Use “big brother-small brother” approach to level the grounds towards productivity improvement.
5. Increase frequency of knowledge exchange and transfer including technology exchange for APO member countries.

SUBMITTED BY

BENJAMIN ARSUA
Manager
Del Monte Philippines, Inc.

(to know more about the forum, please contact Mr. Arsua at arsuabl @ delmonte-phil.com)

Report: Modern Food Quality Management Systems Multicountry STudy Mission, Jul 24-29, 2017, Japan

Group photo with Dr. Saeed, Director of Agriculture Department, APO (Center)

Protecting consumers is the primary objective in the establishment and in implementing quality and food safety system. The series of incidents related to food poisoning and food contamination worldwide and particularly in Asia heightened the level of consumers awareness on food safety and likewise cause distrust on some food items unless or otherwise proven as safe due to the a complex food value chain. The issue on food traceability is a major concern that has to be addressed and in order to establish accountability in the event that problems occur along the distribution channel.

This is a call for the review of existing laws and standards on food safety. Various government bodies are now putting in place policies, rules and regulations that will institute appropriate food control regulations and incorporating therein the traceability requirement. Implementing a good quality management system ensures the production and distribution of food products that are of good quality and safe for the consumers. While food quality may be associated with sensory, taste and cost, food safety will be of utmost importance. It must be based on scientific knowledge and not on economic views.

SMEs in Japan are implementing good quality management system to ensure protection of consumers and gaining their trust which will also translate to profitability to the company. However in other Asian countries, due to lack of understanding of the system and the limited financial and human resources, SMEs have difficulty implementing a modern food quality management system that is at par with the Japan’s SMEs. However, the concepts and principles are the same. It’s the equipment and infrastructure that differs. Thus, through this program we will have the opportunity to learn the Japanese modern food quality and safety management system with the end in mind of sharing such learnings and experiences to our respective SMEs.

OBJECTIVES FOR PARTICIPATION

1. Enhance my understanding of the modern food quality management system through the visits, observational tours and technical sessions with experts and SMEs in Japan that has successfully practice such system;

2. Establish network and possible partnership with other participants who are involved in the food industry and learn from the sharing of experiences and practices.

3. Based on my learnings, come up with an action plan on how these can be shared, adopted and implemented by Philippine MSMEs to improve the productivity and competitiveness of local MSMEs.

PARTICIPANTS

The training program was attended by 17 participants coming the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Iran, India and Taiwan. Participants are coming from both the government and private sectors. There are two (2) participants from the Philippines. The private sector is represented by:

CHRISTOPHER GLENN G. MIRANDILLA
Technical Supervisor
Mardak Global Export, Inc.
8001 Dalhia Street, Aranzazu Subd., Rodriguez, Rizal, Philippines 1860

SCOPE, CONTENT, METHODOLOGY

The topics discussed were focused on the following areas of concerns:

1. Emerging trends in food quality management system in Japan;
2. State of the art Japanese policies and institutional settings for effective implementation of modern food quality management systems by SMEs
3. Presentation of cases of successful implementation of modern food quality control regulation and food safety management system;
4. State-of-the –art digital food traceability system for SMEs
5. Challenges and options for private sector SMEs in implementing modern food quality control regulations and food safety management system

The Observational Study Mission involves the following training methodologies:

1. Plant tours and visits of selected companies with lectures and Q&A from technical personnel;
2. Visit and technical session with government regulatory agencies;
3. Lectures and presentation of technical papers from industry experts;
4. Group Discussion and Action Planning

The training program was formally opened by Dr. Muhammad Saeed, Director of Agriculture Department of the Asian Productivity Organization and was followed by an APO orientation as well as a review of the training program by Mr. Mitsou Nakamura, Program Officer, Agricultural Department of the Asian Productivity Organization. This was followed by a series of lectures and technical sessions.

There were 11 Technical Lecture Sessions and 9 Sites Visits:

Presentation 1: Institutional Framework for Managing Food Quality
Dr. Teiji Takahashi
Former Lecturer, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences
The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo

Presentation 2: Food Safety Management System: Some Case Studies from Japan
Dr. Goichiro Yukawa
Professor, Safety Management in Food Supply Chain Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology inato-ku, Tokyo

Presentation 3: Current Food Safety Issues in Asian Countries
Dr. Yasuhiro Inatsu
Team Leader, Food Hygiene Laboratory, Food Safety Division
National Food Research Institute
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture

Presentation 4: Managing Food Safety by the Japanese Food Processing SMEs
Mr. Shigeru Yoshida
Managing Director
QAS, Food Safety Auditor
IRCA Food Safety (ISO22000) Provisional Auditor
Kamaichi Co., Ltd., Kawaguchi, Saitama Prefecture

Presentation 5: Emerging Trends in Food Quality Management Systems in Japan
Mr. Mitsuo Nakamura
Program officer, Agricultural department
Asian Productivity Organization (APO)

Presentation 6: Future Food
Dr. Muhammad Saeed,
Director, Agricultural department,
Asian Productivity Organization (APO)

Presentation 7: Food Safety Management: Prediction and Precautions with Risk Analysis
Dr. Yoko Niiyama
Professor, Ritsumeikan University

Presentation 8: Traceability in Food Chain: Experience in Japan
Dr. Yoko Niiyama
Professor, Ritsumeikan University

Presentation 9: Current Trends and Best Practices of Cold Chain Logistics for Food Quality Management in Asia
Dr. Takayuki Mori
Professor, University of Marketing and Distribution Sciences

Presentation 10: Closed Environment Agriculture with Emphasis on Plant Factory
Dr. Toyoki Kozai
Professor Emeritus of Chiba University
Japan Plant Factory Association

Presentation 11:
Regional Brand of High Quality Kobe Beef in Japan
Mr. Tetsunori Tanimoto
Head of the Secretariat, Kobe Beef Marketing and Distribution Promotion Assn
Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture

FIELD VISITS

Visit 1: Doi Shibazuke
Food Processing Company, Japanese pickles
Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture

Visit 2: Marumasa Food
Food Processing Company, Pre-cut vegetable factory
Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture

Visit 4: Mishima Food
Food Processing Company, Pre-packaged food and rice seasoning
Sakado City, Saitama Prefecture

Visit 5: Shinmei Kitchen
Rice Milling Company
Kawaguchi City, Saitama Prefecture

Visit 6: Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Center (FAMIC)
Saitama Shintoshin, Saitama Prefecture

Visit 7: Plant Factory, Chiba University
Kashiwa City, Chiba Prefecture

Visit 8: Meiji Moriya Factory
Dairy products Company,
Moriya City, Ibaraki Prefecture

Visit 9: Kikkoman Corporation
Soy sauce, Soy Sauce-based Seasonings
Noda City, Chiba Prefecture

COUNTRY PRESENTATIONS

The 17 participants were divided into 3 groups and a rapporteur was selected per group. Each group was made to select a at least 2 topics from among technical sessions and site visits attended and come up with a country specific action plan related to the said topic. Below are the country groupings:

Group 1: Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, Iran
Group 2: Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Indonesia
Group 3: Malaysia, Vietnam, Republic of China, Philippines

Group 3 Paper and Action Plan (Philippine Grouping)

The topics of interested selected by our group are a. Food Quality and b. Risk Analysis

A. Food Quality, SME should move forward as base on the following tract:

• Meet standards and market requirement
• Meet specifications of raw materials
• Gain organic certification
• Take responsibilities from food supplier original
• Establish food defense, food fraud system
• Establish food safety and quality monitoring plan

B. Risk Analysis, Contribute to assurance of food safety and consumer trust

• Base on scientific knowledge not on economic views
• An excellent tools to decide the policy priority base on risk probability and severity
• Determine acceptable level for identified risk
• Address uncertainties
• Communicate to stakeholders sincerely

OUTCOMES AND EVALUATION

Participation to this program provided me the opportunity to know and be familiarized with the Modern Quality Management System being implemented in Japan through the technical sessions with experts and through the observations made with SMEs that are implementing and adopting good quality management system. While SMEs in Japan are more advance in terms of technology and equipment, the principle in the establishment of quality control and food safety management system are the same. Through the sharing among the participants who are also experts in their respective countries and practitioners of quality management system, lot were shared and learned.

The training program was indeed a very holistic learning experience and the objectives set were met. It also enhance my understanding of the modern food quality management systems through the visits, observational tours and technical sessions with SMEs in Japan that has successfully practice such system.

Likewise, it provided me the opportunity to establish network and possible partnership with other participants who are involved in the food industry and learn from the sharing of their experiences and practices. Based on my learnings, I am now in a better position shared and teach the new concepts and approaches to MSMES and help them implement a good quality system with the end in mind of improving their productivity, enhance product acceptability and increase their competitiveness level.

The experts and lecturers were good and that the technical sessions provided me a good learnings experience and insights on the various aspects of the modern quality management system in Japan. It also gave us a clear understanding of the concepts and approaches. The choices of the firms that were visited were also good, as these SMEs were very much engaged and very serious in the implementation of their respective quality management system. Very notable is the willingness of the SMEs to share their practices and learnings and on how they were able to implement the system.

I would also like to thank the APO facilitator and coordinator for excellent arrangements all throughout the study mission.

SUBMITTED BY

EDWIN BANQUERIGO
Assistant Regional Director
Department of Trade and Industry – Region 11
Davao City

(To know more about the APO workshop, please contact Mr. Banquerigo at edwinbanquerigo @ yahoo.com)

 

Report: Emerging Roles of Producers’ Associations and Farmers’ Cooperatives Workshop, Apr 23-27, Bangladesh

The Inaugural Program, April 23, 2017

The training discusses on the Roles of Producers’s Organization and Farmers’ Associations in a wide range of forms.  It is acknowledged that producers & farmers organizations have played a major role in economic development and reduction of poverty especially in the underdeveloped and developing countries.   They also served as conduits for technical and financial assistance from governments and financial institutions.  They provided inputs and technology, facilitated information transfers, and offered marketing services and venues for networking and knowledge sharing to small farmers.

In recent years, the number of such organizations has, however, been declining and their roles have been changing as many small farmers have direct access to farm input providers and markets for their produce.  Farmers Associations/Cooperatives are facing new challenges and unprecedented demands driven by aging farming communities, lack of interest of youth in farming, shortages of labor in rural areas, and high fluctuations of prices of agricultural commodities.  Consumers are increasingly demanding safe, high-quality food produced in environmentally and socially friendly ways.  Agriculture is known to be the sector most susceptible to the effects of expanded regional/world trade.  In addition, state of the art innovative technologies are restructuring the architecture of conventional farming methodologies. People must buy agrifood items produced in distant unknown sites.

Thus, it is critical for producers’ associations and farmers’ cooperatives as types of businesses and enterprises, to be aware of changing trends and think outside of the box to stay relevant to the fast-changing needs of their members and clientele.  Thus, this training is beneficial to the facilitators of development across all sectors to be updated and enhance professional growth on the emerging roles of the producers and farmers organizations especially in the agriculture sector.

Issues/Problems/Concerns

• The tremendous economic, political and environmental changes over the past four decades, had affected the roles played by different stakeholders in agricultural and rural development;

• Trade liberalization and globalization are powerful means for some developing countries to eradicate poverty and promote economic growth and development and so many governments reduced investment in agriculture and withdrew from many rural areas.

• Private sectors such as producers and farmers’ organizations play a big role in providing agricultural services, gain skills, build enterprises, process and market agricultural produce for their individual farmer members. How could the organization help or contribute increase income of their farmer members and what strategy they will adopt to infuse changes?

PARTICIPANT’S OBJECTIVES

a. To acquire knowledge and ideas on the new and emerging trends in agriculture industry;

b. To be able to rationalize the roles and involvement of the producers’ and farmers’ organizations in promoting smart agriculture and how are they able to address changes that affect them;

c. To share the learnings acquired from the five (5) day training to our assisted farmers and Farmers’ Organizations through feedbacking and integration of the topics to other relevant training programs that are conducted by the undersigned;

d. To experience and observe on how producers/farmers and farmer organizations of Bangladesh contributed to economic development and reduction of poverty in rural communities;

e. To increase awareness on the roles of farmers and farmers/producers’ organizations in other participating countries and their successful stories;

f. To know more about Bangladesh, its people, culture, and history.

PARTICIPANTS

There are twenty-three (23) participants coming from the thirteen (13) participating countries who were APO members of the  United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-ESCAP).  Participants  are composed of 18 Males and  5 Females where 11  delegates came from the Government Institutions, 8 from various Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), 1 from Financial Institution (FI) and 3 from the Academe.

Filipino participants are as follows

MARY JUNE B. ANDRES
Senior Agrarian Reform Program Officer
Department of Agrarian Reform – Region 6

MERLINDA B. CALUBAQUIB
Managing Director
Vizcaya Fresh Organic Advocates Inc.

ROY T. BOSQUE
Agriculture Technical Supervisor
Lamac Multipurpose Cooperative

SCOPE, CONTENT, METHODOLOGY

Methodology of the training were lecture-discussion, interactions of ideas between speakers and participants on the different roles of farmers, sharing different experience and approaches through country paper presentation, case study workshop and learning visit to SHISUK (Shikha Shastha Unnayan Karzakram), which stands for Education, Healthy and Development Program, an independent,  nonprofit NGO that was organized in 1994.

SHISUK’s women in their Bamboo Weaving Livelihood Project where women gets a net income of US$30 per delivery . The project is an alternative source of income of the households

SHISUK’s women in their Bamboo Weaving Livelihood Project where women gets a net income of US$30 per delivery . The project is an alternative source of income of the households

The training incorporates socialization activities during the Welcome Dinner hosted by the  APO and Thanksgiving Dinner given by Md. Mosharraf Hossain Bhuiyan NDC, Senior Secretary, Ministry of Industries & APO Country Director where the undersigned was given the opportunity in behalf of the twenty-three (23) participants to express our heartfelt thanksgiving to the host country for the warm hospitality and commendable accommodation given to the contingents.

The “Delta Group” discussed the case of SHISUK

LEARNINGS

1. Trends in agriculture is concentrated on food system to respond to population growth, and needs of the people;

2. Issues on infrastructure, climate change, land availability and access to technology must be addressed to respond to the above needs;

3. Actors on food value chain have critical role to play;

4. Farmers and farmer producers/organizations involvement are critical for development.

5. Worth noting are the emerging trends in other countries and around the world that change the shapes of the food and agriculture industry which become them more competitive.

6. Technology, machinery, policies, and preparedness of each player are critical factors that can make or break roles in the food and agriculture industry.

The dinner was hosted by Mr. Md Mosharraf Hossain Bhuiyan NDC, Senior Secretary, Ministry of Industries & PO Country Director for Bangladesh. Thanksgiving message was delivered by the undersigned

Evaluation

a. Training held outside the country is another form of an incentive or a reward given to the participants. It is a recognition of the job well done that with the opportunity given, it  will enhance the professional growth of the participant.  The five (5) day training exposure in Bangladesh for the member country’s participants was another noteworthy effort and achievements by APO in cooperation of the NPOs. Accommodation and the hospitality  of the host country was commendable where participant’s security and welfare were their concern.   The hotel offered a various choices of food and desserts that APO/NPO very well considered for  the comfort of the participants.

b. Duration of the training was a  bit short comparable to the topics presented and the exposure was very limited when the project has more to offer to maximize opportunities seen in learning.  Nevertheless,  training was just properly managed and finished with objectives attained satisfactorily.

c. I am happy to note that as an alumni of APO project, there is an APO’s Grantees Forum in the Philippines that serve as a venue to  interact and exchange information of the latest and best practice on productivity and quality management.

d. With the sophisticated technology and the introduction of social media, it opened up a platform where agricultural extension officers, farmers, agricultural institutions, academe, government and non-governments organizations utilize to disseminate and exchange agricultural information.  Similarly, APO develop a community and share a story in a way that was never done before.

The Closing Ceremony was graced by Mr. M. S. Ashrafuzzaman,, Director and Joint Secretary National Productivity Organization (NPO) Bangladesh, Ms. Jisoo Yun, Program Officer, Agriculture Dept. APO with the Resource Persons

RECOMMENDATIONS AND ACTION STEPS

1. APO through NPO to continue building capacities of the farmers, farmer/producer organizations and development facilitators of any sectors;

2. To sustain initiatives and gains of the project through provision of information, training and education;

3. To strengthen diplomatic relationship with member countries in order to promote sustainable human development and global competitiveness in agricultural productivity;

4. Be proactive in providing guidance and mentorship being an advocate of change for agricultural productivity;

5. Continue to share knowledge and information to its less fortunate member countries through subsidized learning programs and activities to widen its coverage thus economies of scale of development may achieve.

7. Learnings and ideas gained from this training will be shared/incorporated to the development works performed by the undersigned under the Agroenterprise Development, Social Enterprise Programs and other relevant activities performed to the assisted farmers and farmers organizations.

8. Action plans formulated to use and disseminate lessons learned in promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development.

SUBMITTED BY

MARY JUNE B. ANDRES
Senior Agrarian Reform Program Officer
Department of Agrarian Reform – Region 6

(To know more about the APO workshop, please contact Ms. Andres at enujyram_ilo @ yahoo.com or rssd_dlr6 @ yahoo.com.ph)

 

APO Self-learning e-Course on Agritourism Business Development, Jul 3-Dec 2, 2017

Tourism is one of the world’s largest industries, with 1.2 billion annual international travelers creating almost 300 million jobs and generating nearly USD trillion in global GDP. Well-developed travel markets such as Europe and the USA account for the largest share of the inbound tourism market, but the greatest growth is in emerging destinations across Asia and Africa. The outbound travel market is also rapidly changing, with Chinese tourists having surpassed Americans and Europeans as the largest annual visitor expenditure segment at USD 165 billion.

As an increasing number of the world’s population becomes more experienced travelers, their attitudes, interests, and behaviors are also changing. First-time visitors to a destination normally spend their time and money on traditional mass tourism products and experiences such as group tours, resort hotels, and major attractions. Repeat visitors more often go “off the beaten path” in search of what they consider more authentic travel experiences, desiring to interact with and behave like local residents. This deeper exploration of a destination is often defined in industry terms as ecotourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, heritage tourism, culinary tounsm, agritourism, and several other niche sectors that are often focused on nonurban areas.

Another global trend is accelerating the motivation of tourists to expand their travel activities into rural regions. About 51% of the world’s population now lives in urban areas, and that number is expected to increase, alienating billions of people from the natural environment globally. When these outdoor-deprived people travel, they often seek experiences that allow them to interact with the natural environment, which can be most easily accomplished in rural areas.

The Asian Productivity Organization (APO), in cooperation with the Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP), is implementing a self-learning e-course on July 3 and ends on December 2, 2017 (5 months), with the following objectives: 1) increase participants’ knowledge of trends in the global tourism environment, changes in traveler attitudes and behaviors, and growing importance of the agritourism niche in the global tourism market; 2) enhance participants’ understanding of essential marketing concepts, skills, and practices in agritourism product development and promotion; and 3) enable participants to plan and operate agritourism business models that can generate sustainable economic growth.

Target participants are CEOs, managers, and officers of agritourism enterprises, officers of government, academics, extension officers, consultants, and NGOs involved in planning, development, management, and promotion of agritourism projects.

The structured self-learning e-course will be implemented through the APO’s dedicated e-learning website: http://www.eapo-tokyo.org. The participants can register on this website and create their own accounts. Ongoing registration starts on July 3 until November 2, 2017.

As the National Productivity Organization, the DAP invites the public to register and participate in this FREE learning opportunity.

Participants who pass the final exam will earn an e-Certificate courtesy of the Asian Productivity Organization (APO), and will also be given preference, on a merit basis, for selection to attend the follow-up face-to-face multi-country APO project, subject to nomination requirements.

For more information, please refer to the poster advertisement or contact the APO/NPO Secretariat at Tel. No. 631-2143, or e-mail at apolu@dap.edu.ph or apolugrantees@yahoo.com.ph. Attn. Mr. Michael Del Mundo or Ms. Bonna Frias. Other details can also be found at these websites: http://www.dap.edu.ph (DAP); http://www.apo-tokyo.org (APO);

Note: Participants from non-APO member countries are welcome to take the course, but will not be provided certificate.

Report: Sustainability Assessment of Agribusiness Enterprises Workshop, Nov 28 to Dec 2 2016, Indonesia

Group Photo

The Asian Productivity Organization (APO), in partnership with the Agency for Agriculture Extension and Human Resources Development of the Ministry of Agriculture and the Directorate General of Training and Productivity Development of the Ministry of Manpower of Indonesia, initiated the Workshop on Sustainability Assessment of Agribusiness Enterprises. This is one of the answers to the worldwide agreement at the 1992 Earth Summit of achieving sustainable development.

Assessment on sustainability will help a particular company or producer in determining its sustainability performance in terms of environmental integrity, economic resilience, social well-being, and good governance with reference to a sustainability assessment system like the Sustainability Assessment in Food and Agriculture (SAFA) System of the United Nation Food and Agriculture Organization, and through the use of sustainability assessment tools like the Response Inducing Sustainability Evaluation (RISE) and the Sustainability Monitoring and Assessment Routine (SMART) of the Sustainable Food Systems (SFS), as well as the common metrics and indicators on sustainability assessment designed by the Committee on Sustainable Assessment (COSA™).

Once companies or producers are assessed, the necessary measures to overcome the weaknesses and threats could be identified for continuous improvement and for a much sustained operation.

OBJECTIVES

The objective of the undersigned for participating in the workshop is the improvement of skills in undertaking developmental actions for the agribusiness sector in the province through actual exposure on tools and methodologies on sustainability assessment and strategic action planning. It is also expected that familiarization to these approaches will be undertaken through workshops and exercises, as well as through sharing of experiences and practices of other Asian Countries to facilitate the learning.

PARTICIPANTS

There were twenty four (24) participants in the workshop who represented fifteen (15) Asian countries like Bangladesh, Cambodia, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Philippines, China, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. The undersigned was the sole participant from the Philippines and just one of the two (2) participants who belong to the Trade and Industry Department of their respective government. Eight (8) of the trainees were from the Agriculture Department, six (6) were from the Academe, and seven (7) were from the private sector.

SCOPE, CONTENT, METHODOLOGY

The 5-day activity was conducted through lectures, sites visits, presentation of country paper by participants, group workshops and group presentations.

For the lectures, the organizers invited experts on Sustainability Assessment to discuss related topics.

Dr. John Reid, a Senior Research Fellow of the Ngai Tahu Research Center, University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand – The Center was founded “to create intellectual capital and leadership able to lead and support tribal development”. Hence, he is very much concerned about the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). He focused his lecture on the seventeen (17) SDGs adopted by the United Nation (UN) on September 2015.

Mr. Moritz Michael Teriete, General Manager/Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Sustainable Food Systems (SFS) in Ackerstrasse, Frick, Switzerland: – Using the Sustainability Monitoring and Assessment Routine (SMART) tool in sustainability assessment, SFS can “scientifically determine the sustainability of an enterprise and help find efficient solutions. They create the basis for a professional sustainability management and make the company fit for the future.

Mr. Teriete discussed the Models, Standards, and Approaches for Sustainability Assessment. He started by giving the rationale behind the campaign for the Sustainability Assessment in the Food and Agriculture Sector. He mentioned that there is really an increasing yield for different products but always at the expense of nature. He also emphasized the findings that motivated young farmer is now a scarce resource.

One of the important reasons why sustainability assessment is important was the result of the World Footprint analysis to determine if we are all fit on earth. According to the Global Footprint Network, humans are currently using an equivalent of 1.6 earths for the production of resources that we need, and at the same time to absorb our waste. If this trend continues, by 2030, we will need an equivalent of 2 earths to support our needs, and since we only have one Mother Earth, then this is a call for us to protect it.

Dr. Gayatri Ramnath, the Regional Research Coordinatorfor Asia of the Committee on Sustainable Assessment (COSA™) in Brisbane, Australia was the third speaker: The COSA™ is a “global consortium of institutionsfostering effective ways to measure and understand sustainability in the agri-food sector. COSA has developed a transparent meta-tool (common framework and indicators) to understand the costs and benefits of sustainability in a globally consistent and scientific manner”.

The organizer also invited two (2) speakers from Indonesia, one of which discussed a case which could be used as sample on Sustainability Assessment. The discussion was focussed on the Palm Oil Industry of Indonesia. The resource person, Ms.Emmy Hafild, is the Vice President of the Professional Certification Agency in Nusa Tenggara Barat.

The other speaker discussed how to assess and evaluate the performance of cooperatives, giving Indonesian cooperatives as samples. The resource person, Dr.Ir. Lukman Mohammad Baga, is a Lecturer from Bogor Agriculutral University in Bogor, Indonesia. He presented some of the important facts and information in his dissertation on the Agribusiness Cooperatives in Bogor.

SITE VISITS

Two (2) firms were visited, the Wiguna Makmur, Limited and the PT Sayuran Siap Saji in the Province of Bogor in Indonesia. Both companies are producers of various freshly cut and freshly produce vegetables like broccoli, potato, tomato, cucumber, lettuce, onion, spring onion, celery, carrot, green pepper, rice, mushroom, beans, corn, peas, cabbage, and more. They were assessed by the participants in terms of sustainability through actual interview of managers and employees during the visit.

The Wiguna Makmur is an ISO 22000 registered firm, and its customers include McDonald’s Indonesia, Burger King Indonesia, A & W Group of Restaurants, Wendy’s, and other local fast food chains and restaurants. To ensure sustainability of production and product quality, they are adopting both the Global Good Agricultural Practices (Global GAP) and the Indonesian GAP, as well as Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). They spent 20 milllion rupiah for this certification, and 50 million rupiah for other certification like Halal for its processed pickled cucumber. They are targeting in 2017 the certification from Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI). The Operations Manager mentioned that Certification is being done to increase market access and once achieve, increase in volume of production to meet the demands of customers are being worked out through sustainability management. He also mentioned that in order to avoid resignation of employees, they observe government regulations on minimum wage, as well as provide health and work insurances.

The PT Sayuran Siap Saji on the other hand started its trial operation in 2011, and became fully operation in 2013. Usually, they seek for long term contracts with Malls and maintain regular transaction with McDonald’s and Burger King in Java Island, as well as with Hoka-Hoka Bento, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Pizza Hut, A & W and Seven Eleven. To ensure product quality, they are adopting Food Safety system like the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP). To meet the demands, they are adopting practices like 2:00 am distribution schedule to avoid traffic, buying 20% to 30% of their requirements from the local market during rainy season, hiring of extension workers who monitors the farmers daily to address problems, inviting experts from abroad for training sessions with farmers every six (6) months, and extending loan to farmers without interest in times of disaster like floods.

COUNTRY PAPERS

Part also of the activities was the Presentation of the Country Paper of each participant. As the representative from the Philippines, the undersigned prepared a more focused presentation so that questions regarding the matter could be answered thoroughly. The paper entitled, “The Agribusiness Industry in the Philippines (with focus on the Pineapple Industry of Camarines Norte)”, covers the production and processing of pineapple into food and non-food products in the province. The interventions provided to sustain the project, as well as the impacts of these interventions were discussed. Challenges and opportunities, including the recommendations on how to overcome the challenges were likewise presented.

GROUP EXERCISE/PRESENTATION

On the last afternoon session, participants were divided into three (3) groups for the Group Exercise with the instruction to select one case study from the country presentations. After the selection of the case study, supply chain was mapped, boundaries were set using the decision tree approach, tools and indicators were likewise selected by choosing from the sub-theme indicators of each sustainability dimensions, assessments were undertaken and ratings were given to plot the sustainability polygon, and it ended with the analysis of the resulting spider web figure. The reporting of each group was undertaken the following morning.

The undersigned was included in Group 3, together with the representatives from Mongolia (1), China (1), Thailand (2), Vietnam (1) and Indonesia (2). The Case Study that was prepared on the Pineapple Industry in Camarines Norte was chosen unanimously by the group members to be the focused of the exercise. The resource persons also agreed but required the identification of just one (1) enterprise engaged in Pineapple Production and Processing since according to them, assessment could not be undertaken on an Industry-wide level, but on a firm level. The operation of the Labo Progressive Multi-Purpose Cooperative suits the requirements set by the speakers, hence, it was chosen as the enterprise to be assessed. Reporting of the output was also done by the undersigned.

OUTCOMES AND EVALUATION

The objectives of the workshop of reviewing different models, standards, and approaches for assessing the sustainability of agribusiness enterprises and their applications based on the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of operations, as well as promoting the adoption of principles of sustainable development by farm and agribusiness enterprises, in particular SMEs in Asian countries were achieved. Participants to the workshop are one in saying that there is really a need to assess the sustainability of agribusiness enterprises through the use of various approaches presented, and the need as well to promote such learning to SMEs in their respective country.

The objective of formulating strategic action plans to promote the sustainability of agribusiness enterprises, will be realized after the assessments are undertaken. Since once the hotspots are identified, it is only then that the appropriate interventions could be identified.

The objective of contributing to achieving the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development could be felt once the action plans are implemented and resulted to positive impacts.

The personal objective of the undersigned in participating to the workshop was also met since the tools and methodologies on sustainability assessment were discussed through lectures and were applied through a group exercise conducted. The resource persons are really experts on this field and have presented various cases where sustainability assessments were actually done. The resulting analysis of the sustainability polygon will be of great help in the formulation of effective action plan for a specific concern.

RECOMMENDATIONS AND ACTION STEPS

It is recommended to APO and APO member countries to conduct the same workshop to other member and non-member countries who failed to send participants in Bogor, Indonesia, and if possible lengthen the duration of the training to enable the conduct of a more thorough exercise. The effective way of allowing the participants to learn the approach is through experiential learning.

It is recommended to the Philippine NPO, the Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP), together with the Philippine Government, specifically the Agriculture and Trade and Industry Departments to undertake the same training in the Philippines, with focus on just one assessment tool, either the Sustainability Monitoring and Assessment Routine (SMART) of the Sustainable Food Systems (SFS), or the common metrics and indicators on sustainability assessment designed by the Committee on Sustainable Assessment (COSA™). Although discussions and application through an exercise was conducted, only the basic essential elements are learned, which is not enough for the participants to actually do the same in the field. The Philippine Government could also fund the conduct of an actual sustainability assessment by either SFS or COSA to one specific enterprise or sector in the country with team members coming from the DA and DTI as understudy.

To disseminate the knowledge gained from the workshop, the undersigned is committed to do the following:

1. Present to my colleagues, and the Provincial Government of Camarines Norte, specifically the Office of the Provincial Agriculturist about the information, knowledge and inputs I received from the workshop;

2. Visit a relevant association or group and hold discussions with them on how they can promote Sustainability of Agribusiness Enterprise based on the findings of the workshop;

3. With the permission from my superiors, support APO/DAP projects by committing our organization as potential site visits for APO foreign or local participants during conduct of projects here in the Philippines;

4. With the permission from my superiors, make myself available to DAP/APO as resource person/consultant to some of its activities/projects/advocacies, and share my technical expertise/skills as part of the NPO pool of productivity experts.

SUBMITTED BY:

CHRISTIE A. RIVERA
Supervising Trade Industry Development Specialist
DTI Camarines Norte

(To know more about the APO training, please contact Ms. Rivera at christie.rivera @ dti05.org)

APO Self-learning e-Course on Rural Entrepreneurship Development, Sep 11 to Feb 10, 2018

Poster invite

Entreprepreneurship is a driving force for rural development. It involves strategic interventions to accelerate and revitalize declining rural economies by expanding business outreach to farm/nonfarm areas. Rural entrepreneurship can offer innovative, cost-effective sources of living by crossing the boundaries among primary, secondary, and tertiary industries. It enables local people to appreciate the value of resources in the area and utilize them as inputs for creating value-added products and services. Thus entrepreneurship diversifies sources of livelihood and increases per capita income. In reality, however, nurturing successful entrepreneurs has often faced challenges such as lack of financial support and social recognition, and rural people rarely start businesses or put their business ideas into practice.

The Asian Productivity Organization (APO), in cooperation with the Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP), is implementing a self-learning e-course on September 11 and ends on February 10, 2018 (5 months), with the objective of building the capability of rural entrepreneurs, SME operators, and rural development planners, trainers, and consultants who are engaged in business advisory services and/or are interested in initiating businesses in rural areas.

Target participants are rural entrepreneurs, CEOS and managers of SMEs, rural development planners, trainers, and consultants engaged in business advisory services and/or interested in initiating businesses in rural areas, government officers, representatives of NGOs, academics, extension officers and other personnel engaged in planning, training, and/or promoting rural businesses and startups and providing consultancy services on profit-generating economic activities in rural communities.

The structured self-learning e-course will be implemented through the APO’s dedicated e-learning website: http://www.eapo-tokyo.org. The participants can register on this website and create their own accounts. Ongoing registration starts on September 11 and will end at the closing hours of February 10, 2018.

As the National Productivity Organization, the DAP invites the public to register and participate in this FREE learning opportunity.

Participants who pass the final exam will earn an e-Certificate courtesy of the Asian Productivity Organization (APO), and will also be given preference, on a merit basis, for selection to attend the follow-up face-to-face multi-country APO project, subject to nomination requirements.

For more information, please refer to the poster advertisement or contact the APO/NPO Secretariat at Tel. No. 631-2143, or e-mail at apolu@dap.edu.ph or apolugrantees@yahoo.com.ph. Attn. Mr. Michael Del Mundo or Ms. Bonna Frias. Other details can also be found at these websites: http://www.dap.edu.ph (DAP); http://www.apo-tokyo.org (APO);

Note: Participants from non-APO member countries are welcome to take the course, but will not be provided certificate.

DAP Kartilya Session: The ASEAN Way– Bedrock or Stumbling Block?, Aug 24, 2017, DAP Pasig City

The Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP) is pleased to invite the public to the Council of Fellows Kartilya Session: “The ASEAN Way: Bedrock or Stumbling Block?” with Eminent Fellow and Dean of DAP Graduate School Orlando S. Mercado, PhD, on 24 August 2017. This will be held on Thursday, 2:00 to 4:00pm at Leonides Virata Hall, 2nd floor, DAP Building, located at San Miguel Avenue, Ortigas Center, Pasig City, Philippines.

This session is part of DAP’s contribution to the celebration of the 50th Anniversary of ASEAN and the 2017 Philippine ASEAN Chairmanship.

Interested parties may contact Ms. Ellinor Santos or Ms. Chonette Cristobal at telephone number (02) 631-0921 local 122 or email at santose@dap.edu.ph / cristobalc@dap.edu.ph.

APO Self-learning e-Course on Productivity Tools and Techniques (Basic), Apr 1-Nov 30, 2017

Micro, Small and Medium size companies generally suffer from lack of knowledge of basic productivity tools, weak technical capabilities, and limited access to external assistance. To improve product or service quality, most of them apply various improvement tools and techniques to achieve growth and generate better profits. Thus the development of productivity practitioners remains a high priority need for companies, practitioners who are well equipped with fundamental knowledge on productivity to help implement improvement programs.

The Asian Productivity Organization (APO), in cooperation with the Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP), is implementing a self-learning e-course from April 1 up to November 30, 2017, with the objective of providing basic understanding of fundamental productivity concepts, principles, and tools. The course covers basic concepts of productivity in SMEs, tools and other approaches to improve productivity, and an integrated productivity framework to diagnose productivity problems and develop and implement solutions.

The structured self-learning e-course will be implemented through the APO’s dedicated e-learning website: http://www.eapo-tokyo.org. The participants can register on this website and create their own accounts. Ongoing registration is until December 2017 (continuing registration).

As the National Productivity Organization, the Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP) is in charge of the coordination and promotion of the program at the local level. In this regard, DAP invites the public to register and participate in this FREE learning opportunity.

Successful participants who passes the final exam will earn a Certificate courtesy of the Asian Productivity Organization (APO), and an opportunity to be invited to participate in a face-to-face training in any of the 18 APO member countries co-sponsored by the APO (subject to other qualification requirements and standards of the project).

For more information, please refer to the poster advertisement or contact the APO/NPO Secretariat at Tel. No. 631-2143, 631-2126, or e-mail at apolu@dap.edu.ph or apolugrantees@yahoo.com.ph. Attn. Mr. Michael M. Del Mundo or Ms. Bonna D. Frias. Other details can also be found at these websites: http://www.dap.edu.ph (DAP); http://www.apo-tokyo.org (APO);

Note: Participants from non-APO member countries are welcome to take the course, but will not be provided certificate.